How lathe machine works?

Standard working system

  • All stock must be fittingly secured in the machine throw or mounted before the machining procedure occurring. Utilize the privilege estimated clip or tight clamp for the stock being machined.
  • Turn the chuck or faceplate by hand to guarantee there is no binding or danger of the work striking any piece of the lathe.
  • Check to guarantee the cutting tool won't keep running into the chuck or lathe dog. Feed away from the chuck or dogs if possible.
  • Before beginning the lathe, guarantee the axle work has the glass focus imbedded; tail, stock and device rests are safely clasped; and there is appropriate leeway for the pivoting stock.
  • Prior to beginning the lathe, guarantee that little distance across stock does not extend too a long way from the hurl without support from the tail stock focus.
  • When utilizing wood, don't mount a split work piece or one containing hitches.
  • When roughing stock, don't force the tool in the work piece or take too big a cut.
  • The operator should always be aware of the speed and direction of the carriage or cross-feed preceding to engaging the automatic feed.
  • Remember that never leave the key in the chuck. Try not let go of the key until it is free of the chuck and secured in its appropriate holding place.
  • Choose turning speed carefully. Large diameter stocks must be turned at a low speed. Always utilize the lowest speed to rough out the stock preceding last machining.
  • The right speed and feed for the particular material and cutting tool must be utilized. Stop the machine before making modification or measurements.
  • Don't remove the metal or wood chips from the table or stock by hand. Using a brush or other device to properly remove chips or shavings from the table or stock.
  • Never endeavor to run the chuck on/off the spindle head by drawing the power.
  • Don't stop the rotation of the chuck by switching the power to the lathe unless tapping holes.
  • Don't leave instruments, bits or overabundance pieces of stock on the lathe bed.
  • All belts and pulleys must be monitored. If frayed belts or pulleys are watched, the lathe must be removed from service and the belts or pulleys supplanted.
  • Stop the machine promptly if odd noise or excessive vibration happens.
  • Only appropriately sharpened drill bits and cutting devices in good condition should be utilized. Dull bores and chipped or broken cutting devices must be removed from service.
  • Separate the lathe from power source if doing repairs or servicing.
  • At the point when an administrator has got done with taking a shot at the lathe, and before leaving the machine for any reason, the power must be stopped and the machine must arrive at an entire stop.
  • At the point when an administrator watches a hazardous condition with the machine or stock being worked, the administrator must report it instantly to the assigned MSSA and the machine might be removed from administration until the issue has been redressed.

Component of the lathe machine

The lathe is a machine device that holds the workpiece between two rigid and strong supports called centers or in a chuck or face plate which revolves. The cutting device is rigidly held and supported in a device post which is fed against the revolving work. The typical cutting operations are performed with the cutting instrument fed either parallel or at right angles to the axis of the work.

The main components of the lathe are the bed, headstock, fast changing gear box, carriage and tailstock.
  1. Bed: the bed is a rugged, heavy casting in which are mounted the working components of the lathe. It carries the headstock and tail stock for supporting the workpiece and gives a base for the movement of carriage assembly which carries the tool.
  2. Legs: the legs carry the whole load of machine and are firmly secured to floor by foundation bolts.
  3. Headstock: the headstock is clamped on the left hand side of the bed. It serves as housing for the driving pulleys, back gears, headstock spindle, live centre and the feed reverse gear. The headstock spindle is a hollow cylindrical shaft that gives a drive from the motor to work holding devices.
  4. Gear Box: the quick change gear box is placed below the headstock and contains a number of different sized gears.
  5. Carriage: the carriage is situated between the headstock and tailstock. It serves the purpose of supporting, guiding and feeding the component against the job during operation. The main parts of carriage are:
    • The saddle: is an H-shaped casting mounted on the top of lathe ways. It offers support to cross-slide, compound rest and tool post.
    • The cross slide: is mounted on the top of saddle. It gives a mounted or automatic cross movement for the cutting tool.
    • The compound rest: is fitted on the top of cross slide and is utilized to support the device post and the cutting device.
    • The tool post: is mounted on the compound rest and it rigidly clamps the cutting device or device holder at the proper height relative to the work centre line.
    • The apron: is fastened to the saddle. It houses the gears, clutches and levers required to move the carriage or cross slide. The engagement of splitting the nut lever and the automatic feed lever at the same time is prevented she carriage along the lathe bed.
  6.  Tailstock: the tailstock is a portable casting located opposite the headstock on the ways of the bed. The tailstock can slide along the bed in order to accommodate different lengths of workpiece between the centers. A tailstock clamp is given to lock the tailstock at any desired position. The tailstock spindle has an internal taper that holds the dead centre and the tapered shank tools such as reamers and drills.
In order to get an efficient process and beautiful surface at the lathe machining, the tailstock is important to adjust a rotating speed, a cutting depth and a sending speed. Kindly note that the essential elements can not decide easily because these suitable values are quiet different by materials, size and shapes of the part.